DSE Geog E3 X Econ Efficiency & Equity: Electronic Road Pricing | Essay例子

以下係之前關於ERP個post嘅重點:


What is ERP? (電子道路收費系統)

  • A traffic management tool to tackle localised road traffic congestion

  • Based on the "user pays" principle (用者自付原則), charges are levied on vehicles using the roads in the charging areas during designated periods


Aims:

  • Rationalise traffic flow in targeted areas where severe traffic congestion occurs almost daily


Benefits:

  • Reduced vehicular traffic, particularly during congested periods (peak hours)

  • Reduced travel times

  • Increased public transport use and higher car and taxi occupancy

  • Reduced vehicle emissions and reduced exposure to traffic noise inside the charging zone


[Econ題目, 適用於19DSE新增嘅 DRQ] How does ERP improve efficiency?

  • Drivers has only considered their private costs and benefits when making their decisions

  • Given the number of vehicles, the MSC (marginal social cost) > MSB (marginal social benefit) --> net loss is resulted from traffic congestion

  • After the implementation of ETC, charges are levied on vehicles using the roads in the charging areas during designated periods --> increase the MPC (marginal private costs of drivers) --> the number of vehicles may decrease, moving towards the efficient output level/ socially optimal level


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