DSE Geog C1-7 Common Misconceptions 地理常犯錯誤

C1 1️⃣ The depth of focus and damages caused have a negative relationship⁣ 2️⃣ Deep earthquakes are associated with subduction zones instead of constructive and conservative boundaries⁣ 3️⃣ The North American Plate and Pacific Plate move in the same direction⁣ 4️⃣ We can know the direction of plate movement by looking at the direction of the development of hot spots⁣ 5️⃣ The number of aftershocks WILL affect the intensity of earthquakes 6️⃣ Not every earthquake triggers a tsunami ⁣ 7️⃣ The formation of the Himalayas and the Andes is different (C-C collision VS O-C collision)⁣ 8️⃣ Suppose two earthquakes of the same magnitude hit an LDC and MDC. The economic loss as a percentage of GDP will be greater for the LDC while the total loss will be greater for the MDC⁣ 9️⃣ Subduction is NOT involved in the formation of the Himalayas (no subduction in C-C collision)⁣ 1️⃣0️⃣ The Circum-Pacific Belt is a belt with BOTH destructive and conservative plate boundaries⁣ 1️⃣1️⃣ Aleutian Islands is NOT a hotspot ⁣ 1️⃣2️⃣ The earthquakes in New Zealand are not only caused by compressional force (there are both destructive and conservative plate boundaries in New Zealand → compressional + lateral force) ⁣ 1️⃣3️⃣ It is possible to form island arcs when there is an oceanic-oceanic collision (both O-O and C-O collision can form an island arc → former: oceanic arc; latter: continental arc)⁣ - 1️⃣ 震源深度同破壞程度係成反比。⁣ 2️⃣ 深源地震係同破壞性板塊邊界有關,而非與建設性/穩定性板塊邊界相關。⁣ 3️⃣ 北美洲板塊與太平洋板塊係向同一個方向移動。⁣ 4️⃣ 我地可以從熱點的發展方向得知板塊移動的方向。⁣ 5️⃣ 餘震嘅數目係會影響地震的烈度。⁣ 6️⃣ 唔係每一個地震都會導致海嘯嘅出現。⁣ 7️⃣ 喜馬拉雅山同安地斯山脈的形成方法並不相同 (大陸板塊與大陸板塊碰撞 vs 海洋板塊與大陸板塊碰撞)⁣ 8️⃣ 假設兩個同樣強度嘅地震波及到一個欠發達國家同發達國家。欠發達國家的經濟損失(以佔國內生產總之的百分比計算)會比發達國家多。但如果以總經濟損失黎講,發達國家嘅損失比較大。⁣ 9️⃣ 喜馬拉雅山嘅形成並唔涉及俯衝嘅過程 (大陸板塊與大陸板塊碰撞唔會產生俯衝帶)。⁣ 1️⃣0️⃣ 環太平洋地震帶裡面有破壞性同穩定性板塊邊界。⁣ 1️⃣1️⃣ 阿留申群島並唔係一個熱點。⁣ 1️⃣2️⃣ 新西蘭嘅地震並唔係只係由擠壓力造成 (新西蘭被破壞性同穩定性板塊邊界包圍,所以有擠壓力同側向力)⁣ 1️⃣3️⃣ 當海洋板塊與海洋板塊碰撞時,火山島弧有機會形成 (大陸板塊與大陸板塊碰撞 + 海洋板塊與大陸板塊碰撞都有機會形成弧形列島)⁣ ⁣ C2 💧River💧⁣ 1️⃣ The increase in the volume of river flow will increase the river depth and width (increase in river flow → increase in discharge → higher erosional power → more vertical erosion + lateral erosion → increase in river depth and width)⁣ 2️⃣ If a river channel has many DISTRIBUTARIES, river energy will DROP⁣ 3️⃣ The more the TRIBUTARIES, the higher the discharge (distributaries vs tributaries)⁣ 4️⃣ The LOWER course has a HIGHER erosive power (lower course → higher discharge → higher erosive power)⁣ 5️⃣ Upper course has a LOWER mean velocity ⁣ 6️⃣ When gradient increases, surface runoff increases⁣ 7️⃣ The formation of potholes is caused by ABRASION, but NOT by wave erosion⁣ 8️⃣ In a meander, lateral erosion causes OUTER banks to become more CONCAVE and INNER banks to become more CONVEX⁣ 9️⃣ Swash < backwash is favourable for the formation of waterfall → FALSE (swash and backwash is about coastal processes, but not fluvial processes)⁣ 1️⃣0️⃣ Higher drainage density means high flood peak, shorter time lag ⁣ 1️⃣1️⃣ Deforestation will SHORTEN the time lag⁣ 1️⃣2️⃣ Channelisation LOWERS the risk of flooding by INCREASING the BANKFULL DISCHARGE⁣ ⁣- 💧河流💧⁣⁣ 1️⃣ 隨著河流流量增加,河道會加深 (因為有更多下蝕) 同加闊 (因為有更多側蝕)⁣ 2️⃣ 當一個河道有多條分流,河流能量就會下降。支流越多,河流流量就越多。(分流 vs 支流)⁣ 3️⃣ 下游比起上游有更大嘅侵蝕能力 (下游 → 更大河流流量 → 侵蝕能力越大)⁣⁣ 4️⃣ 上游比起下游有更低嘅平均河流流速。⁣ 5️⃣ 當坡度增加,地表徑流就會增加。⁣ 6️⃣ 壺洞係因為磨蝕作用而形成,而非海浪侵蝕。⁣ 7️⃣ 在曲流裡,側蝕會令外河岸更凹入以及內河岸更凸出。⁣ 8️⃣ 沖流 < 回流有利於瀑布的形成 → 錯誤 (沖流和回流只是關於海岸作用,而非河流作用)⁣ 9️⃣ 河網密度越高,代表洪峰越高、滯後時間越短。⁣ 1️⃣0️⃣ 濫伐林木會縮短滯後時間。⁣ 1️⃣1️⃣ 渠化有助增加滿岸流量,從而會降低泛濫的風險。⁣ 🌊Coast🌊⁣ 1️⃣ DEEP wave trough is a characteristics of destructive waves ⁣ 2️⃣ Deep wave trough is favourable for the formation of a sea arch ⁣ 3️⃣ Wave frequency will NOT affect the magnitude of wave energy ⁣ 4️⃣ The size of the sea does NOT the rate of evaporation ⁣ - 1️⃣ 深嘅波谷係破壞性海浪嘅特徵之一。⁣ 2️⃣ 深嘅波谷有利於海蝕拱的形成。⁣ 3️⃣ 海浪頻率係唔會影響海浪能量。⁣ 4️⃣ 海洋嘅面積並唔會影響蒸發速率。 C3 1️⃣ Dried fruit industry is NOT a market-oriented industry (dried fruit is no longer perishable after food processing)⁣ 2️⃣ The increase in production cost in China is the dominant reason for the relocation of factories from China back to the US → No (it should be US’ policy, e.g. “American First” policy; an increase in production cost would only cause factories to move to other SE Asian countries, e.g. Vietnam)⁣ - 1️⃣ 乾果業並唔係一個市場導向工業 (生果經過食品加工變成乾果之後唔會再係易腐)⁣ 2️⃣ 中國製作成本嘅增加並唔係工業由中國遷至美國嘅主因 (主因應該係美國自己嘅政策,e.g. “美國優先”嘅政策;製作成本嘅增加只會令工廠搬到其他東南亞國家, e.g. 越南)⁣ C4 1️⃣ Urban depopulation is a feature of urban decay⁣ 2️⃣ The designation of pedestrian/ cycling track does NOT mean high accessibility ⁣ 3️⃣ A dense road network is NOT a feature of a sustainable city ⁣ - 1️⃣ 人口減少係城市衰落嘅特徵之一。⁣ 2️⃣ 開設行人路/單車經唔代表會有更高的可達度。⁣ 3️⃣ 密集嘅道路網唔係可持續發展城市嘅特徵之一。 C5 1️⃣ The Sahel has an unfavourable physical environment for agriculture while Southern California has a favourable one → No⁣ 2️⃣ LDCs seeking international aid is NOT a long-term measure to deal with their problem of famine ⁣ 3️⃣ Food shortage ≠ famine (e.g. Japan → food supply < food demand → should have food shortage → however, it has sufficient capital to import food from other countries with food surplus → absence of famine)⁣ 4️⃣ Intercropping (a system of sowing two or three crops together on the same land) ≠ Mixed cropping (a system of cropping where two or more crops are grown in proximity)⁣ 5️⃣ Crop rotation cannot be shown by a single photo⁣ 6️⃣ Mixed cropping ≠ Mixed farming (growing of crops + raising of livestock) - 1️⃣ 薩赫勒嘅環境並不適合耕種,而南加州嘅環境係適合耕種嘅 → 錯誤 (兩個地方嘅環境都唔有利)。⁣ 2️⃣ 欠發達國家去尋求國家援助並唔係一個長遠有限嘅措施去解決佢地嘅饑荒問題。⁣ 糧食短缺並不等如饑荒 (e.g. 日本 → 糧食供應 < 糧食需求 → 應該會出現糧食短缺 → 但因為佢有足夠嘅資金,佢就可以向其他有糧食過剩嘅國家進口食品 → 日本冇出現饑荒)。⁣ 3️⃣ 間種法並不等如混合農業/混合作物。⁣ C6 1️⃣ Deforestation increases the likelihood, duration and severity of forest fire (deforestation → global warming → higher temperatures → evaporation increases → the atmosphere draws more moisture from soil → drier land → enhances the likelihood, duration and severity of forest fire)⁣ 2️⃣ Deforestation causes an increase in wind speed on a LOCAL scale (micro climate)⁣ 3️⃣ 'Trees linked and tied by climbers' is NOT a reason explaining the difficulty in developing sustainable logging⁣ 4️⃣ Practising monoculture also has some advantages (e.g. higher efficiency, economies of scale)⁣ - 1️⃣ 伐林/濫伐林木係會提高發生山火嘅可能性、強度同持久性 (伐林 → 全球暖化 → 氣溫上升 → 蒸發率提高 → 大氣層吸取泥土更多水份 → 土地開始乾燥 → 山火更強,更頻密,更持久🔥)⁣ 2️⃣ 伐林係會導致當地風速更快喔(改變咗微氣候)⁣ 3️⃣ 樹木被攀緣植物(climbers) 纏繞唔係發展「可持續伐木業」困難嘅原因⁣ 4️⃣ 單一作物種植其實都有好處嘅…好似高效率同有經濟效益咁⁣ C7 1️⃣ Angle of the sun ≠ Angle of incidence (see Photo 2)⁣ 2️⃣ HIGH latitudinal areas have a SMALL angle of INSOLATION, vice versa⁣ 3️⃣ The increase in the number of iron and steel industries leads to an increase in the emissions of PFCs and SF6 (*記住搞清楚咩industries會release d咩man-made GHGs) ⁣ 4️⃣ Consuming SEASONAL produce can help cut CO2 emissions⁣ (because non-seasonal produce is usually imported/ requires more energy to grow) 5️⃣ CO2 is NOT an air pollutant; it is a GHG⁣ - 1️⃣ 太陽角度並不等如入射角。⁣ 2️⃣ 鋼鐵工業嘅增加會導致全氟化碳同六氟化硫上升。⁣ 3️⃣ 進食時令食品有助減少碳排放。⁣ 4️⃣ 高緯度地區會有比較細的日射角度。⁣

DSE Geog C1-7 Common Misconceptions 地理常犯錯誤